Evaluation of cardiopreventive effects of Ximenia americana (Linn.) and Pappea capensis (Eckl. and Zeyh.) leaf aqueous extracts in rat models with myocardial infarction

Mathabe, Patricia, Ngugi, Mathew and Gaichu, Daniel (2023) Evaluation of cardiopreventive effects of Ximenia americana (Linn.) and Pappea capensis (Eckl. and Zeyh.) leaf aqueous extracts in rat models with myocardial infarction. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 9 (41). ISSN 2314-7253

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Background Myocardial infarction is a significant health issue in both wealthy and underdeveloped nations. Globally, it is the leading cause of deaths among cardiovascular diseases. In 2012, myocardial infarction-related deaths were about 14.1 million out of 17.5 million cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Clinical management of myocardial infarction remains a challenge because most conventional drugs provide symptomatic relief only. In addition, conventional remedies are associated with numerous advese effects and arguably, in many cases are quite expensive. Hence, herbal remedies, which are widely available, with comparatively fewer side effects, and are affordable, provide a more attractive therapeutic alternative. This study aimed at determining cardiopreventive effects of aqueous leaf extracts of X. americana and P. capensis. Phytochemical screening was done using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Wistar albino rats were employed to test for cardiopreventive effects of the extracts and were randomized into 6 groups of 5 animals each. Groups I, II, and III were normal, negative, and positive controls, respectively, and rats were given normal saline, salbutamol (7.5 mg/Kg bw), and propranolol, respectively. Groups IV, V, and VI rats were treated with extracts dose levels 50, 100, and 150 mg/Kg bw, respectively. Biochemical analysis was done to determine effects of the extracts on levels of serum cardiac troponin T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase-1, and lipid profiles. Levels of oxidative stress markers were determined in the heart tissue. Results The LC–MS analysis revealed different phytocompounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, glycosides and tannins, which are known to confer cardioprotective activities. The extracts significantly prevented increase in cardiac troponin T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase-1, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and MDA levels, as well as a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and HDL levels. Conclusions This study confirmed that Ximenia americana and Pappea capensis extracts have the potential to prevent myocardial infarction in rats. Generally, P. capensis extract showed better activity as compared to X. americana extract. The effects of the extracts could be attributable to the presence of various cardioactive phytocompounds. Therefore, these plants can be considered in the development of potent and safe cardiopreventive drugs.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Salbutamol, Propranolol, Myocardial infarction, Cardiopreventive, Ximenia americana, Pappea capensis
Divisions: Agriculture, Food and Environment
Depositing User: Patricia Mathabe
Date Deposited: 01 Jun 2023 09:45
Last Modified: 01 Jun 2023 09:45
URI: https://rau.repository.guildhe.ac.uk/id/eprint/16573

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